Unani medicine, Habb-e-Bukhar, Phytoconstituents, FTIR, AAS, HPLC, GC-MS


Objective: Habb-e-Bukhar is a specific medication regimen in the traditional unani system for treating fever caused by conditions such as elephantiasis and intestinal diseases. It acts as both an Antipyretic and Diaphoretic to address acute fever.

Methods: The current research aims to analyze the qualitative and quantitative composition of Habb-e-Bukhar to assess the primary and secondary metabolites present in the sample extract. The study utilized a range of advanced analytical methods such as FTIR, AAS, HPLC, and GC-MS analysis. The sample was prepared through the maceration method, and an initial phytochemical screening revealed the presence of Alkaloids, Carbohydrates, Volatile oils, Flavonoids, Glycosides, Steroids, and triterpenoids.

Results: The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy reveals the identification of functional groups at specific wavenumbers: 3960.26 for Amide, 3687.85 for Alcohol, 2765.05 for Aliphatic, and 2099.54 for Alkynes; as well as, at wavelength of 1641.55 denoting the presence of Alkenes (C=C). Moreover, findings from the Atomic Absorption spectrometer suggest that the drug contains notable levels of certain heavy metals, such as chromium at 0.00642 ppm, lead at 10.00 ppm, and argon at three ppm detected with precision in their respective wavelengths.

Conclusion: The GC-MS technique was utilized to detect and characterize the phytochemicals found in the ethanolic extract. The findings indicated the existence of seven constituents.


Download data is not yet available.


Steinhoff B. Review: quality of herbal medicinal products: state of the art of purity assessment. Phytomedicine. 2019;60:153003. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2019.153003, PMID 31327654.

Opuni KF, Asare Nkansah S, Osei Fosu P, Akonnor A, Bekoe SO, Dodoo AN. Monitoring and risk assessment of pesticide residues in selected herbal medicinal products in Ghana. Environ Monit Assess. 2021;193(8):470. doi: 10.1007/s10661-021-09261-1, PMID 34226978.

NFUM. National formulary of Unani medicine. Part I, 1st Reprint. New Delhi: Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (Department of AYUSH), Government of India; 2006. p. 13.

Aisha AA, Tabassum K, Ambar S. Tabasheer (Bambusa arundinaceae Retz.) a plant origin drug of unani medicine-a review. J Ayu Her Med. 2019;5(1):31-4. doi: 10.31254/jahm.2019.5109.

Ahmad N, Nawab M, Qamar U. Medicinal properties of gilo (Tinospora cordifolia)-a review. World J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2019;8:430-40.

Sharma P, Dwivedee BP, Bisht D, Dash AK, Kumar D. The chemical constituents and diverse pharmacological importance of Tinospora cordifolia. Heliyon. 2019;5(9):e02437. doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e02437, PMID 31701036.

Tiwari P, Nayak P, Prusty SK, Sahu PK. Phytochemistry and pharmacology of tinospora cordifolia: a review. Syst Rev Pharm. 2018;9(1):70-8. doi: 10.5530/srp.2018.1.14.

Roqaiya M, Begum W, Jahufer R. Acacia arabica (babool)-a review on ethnobotanical and unani traditional uses as well as phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Int J Pharm Phytopharmacol Res. 2015;4(6):315-21.

Meenu VT, Virmani T, Singh L, Kaushik R. Phytochemical screening, GC-MS analysis and total phenolic content determination of bioactive compound of propolis. Int J Drug Deliv Technol. 2023;13(3):884-93. doi: 10.25258/ijddt.13.3.18.

Mobeen A, Siddiqui MA, Quamri MA, Itrat M, Khan MdI. Therapeutic potential of ushaq (Dorema ammoniacum D. Don): a unique drug of unani medicine. Int J Unani Integ Med. 2018;2(1):11-6. doi: 10.33545/2616454X.2018.v2.i1a.17.

Pradhan PC, Kori ML. Preliminary pharmacological screening of corchorus olitorius extracts for anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity. IJPSDR. 2023;15(5):556-63. doi: 10.25004/IJPSDR.2023.150502.

Kokate CK. Practical Pharmacognosy, vallabh Prakhashan. New Delhi; 1996. p. 107-8.

Ram M, Ram Krishna Rao M, Anisha G, Prabhu K, Shil S, Nagarajan V. Preliminary phytochemical and gas chromatography mass spectrometry study of one medicinal plant Carissa carandas. Drug Invent Today. 2019 Aug 1;12:1629-30.

Elgailani IE. Spectrophotometric analysis of some metals and phytochemical screening of Digera muricata (Leaves and stems). Pak J Pharm Sci. 2018;31(5):1923-6. PMID 30150190.

Firdouse S, Gupta J, Alam P. Fingerprint analysis of an ethanolic extract of Amorphophallus campanulatus decline tuber. World J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2016;5(2):1576-80.

Firdouse S, Gupta J, Parwez Alam. FTIR analysis of ethanolic and chloroform extracts of Amorphophallus campanulatus decne tuber. World J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2016;5(2):861-6.

Uddin AH, Khalid RS, Alaama M, Abdualkader AM, Kasmuri A, Abbas SA. Comparative study of three digestion methods for elemental analysis in traditional medicine products using atomic absorption spectrometry. J Anal Sci Technol. 2016;7(1):1-7.

Nag M, Kar A, Chanda J, Mukherjee PK. RP-HPLC analysis of methanol extract of Viscum articulatum. J Ayurveda Integr Med. 2020;11(3):277-80. doi: 10.1016/j.jaim.2018.02.135, PMID 30638917.

Anita A, Selvaraj D. GC-MS analysis and molecular docking of plant-based compounds from medicinal plant Sida acuta Burm F. for antibacterial potential. IJPSDR. 2023;15(3):291-301. doi: 10.25004/IJPSDR.2023.150309.

Suryavanshi A, Saxena AM. Bioactive compounds profiling in Rumex vesicarius and Terminalia catappa plants using GC-MS. UPJOZ. 2022;43:53-9. doi: 10.56557/upjoz/2022/v43i12884.

Lalitharani S, Mohan VR, Regini GS. GC-MS analysis of ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum rhetsa (roxb.) dc spines. J Herb Med Toxicol. 2010;4:191-2.

Ramya B, Malarvili T, Velavan S. GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds in Bryonopsis laciniosa fruit extract. Int J Pharm Sci Res. 2015;6(8):3375-9.

Kichenamourty G, Vellapandian C. Phytochemical studies and identification of bioactive compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of leaf extract of jatropha curcas. Int J Pharm Qual Assur. 2022;13(4):358-62. doi: 10.25258/ijpqa.13.4.03.

Tomer N, Ali MI, Moin S. Evaluation of bioactive potential of the Digera muricata Mart. Int J Pharm Qual Assur. 2022;13(4):402-7. doi: 10.25258/ijpqa.13.4.10.

Belho NA, Veswuh R, Solo P. GC-MS analysis and in-silico docking study of active antifungal components of entada rheedei spreng. (Seeds). IJPSDR 2023;15(6):695-712. doi: 10.25004/IJPSDR.2023. 150603.



How to Cite

FIRDOUSE, S., S. AHMED, and M. A. MUNAIM. “QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PHYTOCONSTITUENTS IN THE UNANI FORMULATION HABB-E-BUKHAR”. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 16, no. 3, May 2024, pp. 36-41, doi:10.22159/ijcpr.2024v16i3.4060.



Original Article(s)